Surah Al-Quraish is the 108th chapter in the Holy Quran and it comprises of 04 verses. This surah was revealed in Makkah, most probably during the early days of Holy Prophet Muhammad’s (ﷺ) proclamation of his Prophethood. In addition, this Surah was revealed immediately after Surah Al-Fil and there was no Surah intervening between them. Besides both Surah have closely related subject matter and on the basis of this claimed, some early scholars had believed that Surah Al-Quraish was supposed to be the continuity of Surah Al-Fil.
This view is further reinforced by the traditions which say that in the Quran copy belonging to Hadrat Ubayy bin Ka’b these two Surahs were written as one Surah, i.e. without the insertion of the Bismillah between them. Additionally, Hadrat Umar (may Allah bless him) had once recited the two Surahs as one in the Prayer. But this view is not acceptable because in the Quran copy which Hadrat Uthman (may Allah bless him) had got written down officially by the cooperation of a large number of the Companions and sent to the centers of Islamic lands, the Bismillah was written between these two Surahs, and since then these two have been written as separate Surahs in all the copies of the Quran everywhere in the world.
This Surah was revealed about the Quraysh and the blessings that Allah, exalted is He, had bestowed upon them.
Umm Hani’ bint Abi Talib who reported that the Holy Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Allah has
favored the Quraysh with seven characteristics which he has never given to anyone before them and will never give to anyone after them:
- The post of the Caliph (al-Khilafah) is given to one among them
- The custody of the Sacred House (al-Hijabah) is assumed by someone from amongst them
- Giving water to the pilgrims (al-Siqayah) during Hajj is undertaken by someone amongst them
- Prophethood is given to someone amongst them
- They were given victory over the [army of] elephants
- They worshipped Allah for seven years during which none worshipped Him
- Surah has been revealed about them in which none but them was mentioned (For the taming of Quraysh…)”.
Long since, the tribe of Quraish was scattered throughout Hijaz until the time of Qusayy bin Kilab, the ancestor of the Holy Prophet (ﷺ). In the beginning, Qusayy gathered it in Makkah and this tribe was able to gain influence over the Ka’bah. Due to their sagacity and wisdom they founded a city state in Makkah and made exceptional preparations for the welfare of the pilgrims coming from all over Arabia. Consequently, the Quraish were able to gain great influence among the Arabian tribes and lands. After Qusayy the offices of the state of Makkah were divided between his sons, Abdi Manaf and Abd ad-Dar.
Further, Abdi Manaf had four sons: Hashim, Abdi Shams, Al-Muttalib, and Naufal. Of these Hashim, father of Abdul Muttalib and grandfather of the Holy Prophet, first conceived the idea to take part in the trade that passed between the eastern countries and Syria and Egypt through Arabia. As against the other Arabian caravans, the Quraish had the advantage that the tribes on the route held them in high esteem on account off their being keepers of the Ka’bah. They stood indebted to them for the great generosity with which the Quraish treated them in the Hajj season. That is why the Quraish felt no fear that their caravans would be robbed or harmed anywhere on the way.
Because of their diplomatic and business relations with tribes of neighboring countries, i.e. Syria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Yamen and Abyssinia. The Quraish came across in direct contact with the multiethnic societies that imparts knowledge and wisdom in Quraish so enhanced that no other tribes from Makkah had ever thought of doing comparisons in these attributes with the Quraish. An additional lead that accrued from these international ties was that they brought from Iraq tile script which later was used for writing down the Quran. No other Arabian tribe could boast of so many literate people as Quraish. For these very reasons, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said: “Quraish are the leaders of men.” (Musnad Ahmad: Marwiyat Amr bin al As).
Hence, the very same tribe, the Quraish later became the enemies of Holy Prophet (ﷺ) when He announced His Prophecy and the noble message of Islam to His fraternity. The main cause of their opposition to the advent of Islam was the fear of losing the kinship of Holy place Ka’bah and their supremacy in the political and economical fields among other Arabs tribes.
Hadith of Holy Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)
The following two Hadiths have encompassed the word Quraish, but their context not specifically related to Surah Al-Quraish. The Hadiths are as follow:
Narrated Wathilah bin Al-Asqa’ (رضي الله عنه) ,That the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “Indeed Allah has chosen Ismail from the children of Ibrahim (عليه السلام), and He chose Banu Kinanah from the children of Ismail, and He chose the Quraish from Banu Kinanah, and He chose Banu Hashim from Quraish, and He chose me from Banu Hashim.”
Jami` at-Tirmidhi Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3605
Narrated Muhammad bin Jubair bin Mut`im (رضي الله عنه) ,That while he was with a delegation from Quraish to Muawiya (رضي الله عنه), the latter heard the news that `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As (رضي الله عنه)said that there would be a king from the tribe of Qahtan. On that Muawiya became angry, got up and then praised Allah as He deserved, and said,
“Now then, I have heard that some men amongst you narrate things which are neither in the Holy Book, nor have been told by Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). Those men are the ignorant amongst you. Beware of such hopes as make the people go astray, for I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying, ‘Authority of ruling will remain with Quraish, and whoever bears hostility to them, Allah will destroy him as long as they abide by the laws of the religion.’ ”
Sahih al-Bukhari 3500
Surah Quraish Benefits and virtues or reading and reciting
- Some benefits of reading and memorizing Surah Al-Quraish have been constantly reported since long time in different religious books and forums. But these benefits hardly supported by any Hadith of Holy Prophet (ﷺ). Though an enormous number of Muslims are being practicing with firm believes and witnessing the miracles happened to them because of the recitation and memorizing of Surah Al-Quraish. The most commonly reported benefits are as follow:
- Recitation cures heart ailments.
- The ill effects of food removed.
- Sustenance is easier to find if recited before sunrise.
- The reciter of this Surah is like him who has circumambulated holy Ka’bah and stayed in the holy masjid for continued prayers and will get the reward of ten times the number of people performing Tawaf.
- Whoso recites Surat Quraish often times, Allah would, on the day of judgement, give him one of the means of transport of paradise which would take him to a very selected part of paradise.
- If Surah Quraish is recited over the food before eating it, it would not harm the eater; and it would have cure of every ailment, inshallah.
- If Surah Quraish is recited over water and it is sprinkled over a man with a heart ailment whose cause is not known, Allah would cure this ailment.
- Those with heart conditions should recite this Surah and then gently blow into some drinking water and drink it.
- The recitation of Surah Al-Fil and Al-Quraish in the compulsory prayers carries great reward.
- If a poor person recites this Sura before sunrise, Allah (S.W.T.) will make it easy for him to get his sustenance.
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